Basic knowledge of abrasives

Abrasives are materials that play a cutting role in grinding, grinding and polishing. Abrasives are divided into natural abrasives and artificial abrasives. All materials in nature that can be used for grinding or grinding are collectively called natural abrasives.

Abrasive tool is a tool used for grinding by bonding abrasive and bonding agent according to a certain shape and size. Abrasives are tools for grinding, grinding and polishing. Most abrasive tools are artificial abrasive tools made of abrasives and binders, and natural abrasive tools directly processed from natural mineral rocks. In addition to being widely used in machinery manufacturing and other metal processing industries, abrasive tools are also used in food processing, paper industry, and processing of non-metallic materials such as ceramics, glass, stone, plastic, rubber, and wood. Commonly used natural abrasives Natural diamonds are used to modify the diamonds of grinding wheels, grinding and grinding difficult materials (such as cemented carbide, gem glass, stone, etc.). Natural corundum

1. High-quality corundum (commonly known as gemstones) includes sapphire (containing titanium), ruby ​​(containing chromium), etc., ordinary corundum, which is black or brownish red;

2. Among the natural corundum, the first type is mainly used for jewelry, and the second type can be used as an abrasive to make grinding wheels, oil stones, sandpaper, emery cloth or fine powder, abrasive paste, etc. Man-made abrasives Man-made diamonds Man-made diamonds can not only be processed into valuable jewellery, but also have great potential in industry. Artificial diamond has high hardness and good wear resistance, and can be widely used in cutting, grinding, and drilling; due to its high thermal conductivity and good electrical insulation, it can be used as a heat sink for semiconductor devices. It has good light transmittance and corrosion resistance, and is also widely used in the electronics industry.

1. Manufacture of resin bond abrasives or grinding.

2. Manufacture of metal bond abrasives, ceramic bond abrasives, or grinding, etc.

3. Manufacture of general formation geological drilling bits, semiconductor and non-metallic material cutting tools, etc.

4. Manufacture of hard formation geological drill bits, correction tools and non-metallic hard and brittle material processing tools, etc.

5. Resin, ceramic bond abrasives or grinding, etc.

6. Metal bond abrasives, electroplating products. Drilling tools or grinding, etc.

7. Dramatic cutting, drilling and correction tools, etc. The artificial abrasives of the artificial abrasive corundum series include brown corundum, white corundum, zirconium
corundum, microcrystalline corundum, single crystal corundum, chromium corundum, praseodymium neodymium corundum, black corundum and alumina sintered corundum.
Super-hard bonding agents mainly include: resin bonding agents, ceramic bonding agents and metal bonding agents.

Artificial corundum

The naturally occurring α-type alumina crystals are called corundum, and often show different colors because they contain different impurities. Corundum is generally bluish or yellowish gray, with glass or diamond luster, density of 3.9-4.1g/cm3, hardness of 8.8, second only to diamond and silicon carbide, it can withstand high temperatures. Corundum sand containing iron oxides is called emery, which is dark gray and dark black. It is often used as an abrasive material. It is used to make various abrasive papers, grinding wheels, grinding stones, and is also used to process optical instruments and certain metal products.

Abrasive bond

There are resin bond, ceramic bond and metal bond respectively.

Resin bond

Abrasives with resin bond have good self-sharpening performance, good elasticity, and polishing effect, especially for ultra-thin resin cutting discs, with high grinding efficiency, low grinding roughness, and low grinding temperature, due to resin bond abrasives Its superior performance is widely used in super-hard abrasives. Resin diamond grinding tools are used for semi-precision grinding and fine grinding of cemented carbide tools and steel-bonded cemented carbide workpieces and some non-metallic materials. Resin cubic boron nitride grinding tools are mainly used for sharpening of high vanadium high speed steel tools, tool steel, die steel, stainless steel, semi-precision grinding and precision grinding of heat-resistant alloy rigid workpieces.

Ceramic bonding agent

Abrasives with ceramic bond have high strength, good heat resistance, sharp cutting, high grinding efficiency, easy to heat and block during grinding, small thermal expansion, easy to control processing accuracy, and easy to repair. Ceramic bond abrasives are generally used for rough grinding, semi-precision grinding, forming grinding with large contact area, grinding of super-hard abrasive sintered body, etc.

Metal bond

Abrasives for metal bond are divided into bronze bond and electroplated bond. The bronze bond has good rigidity, high strength, good wear resistance, long service life, good shape retention, and can withstand large loads. However, it has poor self-sharpness, easily blocks fever, and is difficult to repair. Bronze bond diamond abrasive tools are mainly used for rough, fine grinding and cutting of metal materials such as glass, ceramics, stone, concrete, semiconductor materials and super hard materials, and a small amount of rough grinding and forming grinding of carbide and various Honing of materials. CBN grinding tools can be used for forming grinding of metal materials and honing of various alloys.